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A new trophy was introduced for the Championship. Ireland were the last team to win the old trophy, and coincidentally, the first team to win the new one.
A team that wins all its games wins the ' Grand Slam '. Although this achievement has long been a feature of the tournament, it was not until that a physical Triple Crown trophy was awarded.
The Triple Crown may only be won by England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales, when one nation wins all three of their matches against the others, during the Six Nations Championship.
The Triple Crown honour has long been a feature of the tournament, dating back to the original Home Nations Championship, but the physical Triple Crown Trophy has been awarded only since The current holder of the Triple Crown is Ireland, who defeated England, Scotland, and Wales in the championship.
It has since been won three times by Ireland and twice by England and Wales. Several individual competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament.
The oldest such regular competition is for the Calcutta Cup , contested annually between England and Scotland since Since , the Millennium Trophy has been awarded to the winner of the game between England and Ireland, and since the Centenary Quaich has been awarded to the winner of the game between Ireland and Scotland.
Since , France and Italy have contested the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy ; it was created for the th anniversary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi , the Italian hero who helped unify Italy and volunteered in the French Republican Army against Prussia.
The following trophies are contested within the main competition, mostly as long-standing fixtures between pairs of teams:. This arrangement was made necessary by the closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland's traditional home at Lansdowne Road ; the Aviva was built on the former Lansdowne Road site.
During the construction of the Aviva, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82, In Italy moved their home games from the Stadio Flaminio, which only held 32,, to the Stadio Olimpico, also in Rome, with a capacity of 72, The French Rugby Federation FFR had planned to build a new stadium of its own, seating 82, in the southern suburbs of Paris,  because of frustrations with their tenancy of the Stade de France.
England's Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match 35 points against Italy in and one season with 89 scored in Ronan O'Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with points to Wilkinson's , having surpassed Wilkinson in Round 3 of the championship.
The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries against Wales in Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with The record for appearances is held by O'Gara, with 63 Six Nations appearances from the start of the Six Nations era in to his retirement in He surpassed countryman Mike Gibson in the first round of the tournament against Wales.
Gibson played in 56 Five Nations matches Italy had not become part of the Championship yet between and The most points scored by a team in one match was 80 points, scored by England against Italy in England also scored the most ever points in a season in with , and most tries in a season with Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try, at minutes in the tournament.
The BBC has long covered the tournament, broadcasting all matches apart from England home matches between and , which were shown live by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC.
In , it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online would be extended to Until , the Championship had no title sponsor.
A new title sponsor was sought for the tournament and beyond. As the RBS initials brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after their banking arm NatWest , becoming the Natwest 6 Nations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of Six Nations Championship records. The first ever Home Nations International Championship was played in Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original on 6 September Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 4 February Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 11 March France Ireland Italy Scotland Wales.
England Ireland Italy Scotland Wales. England France Italy Scotland Wales. Another matter that surprised many contemporary observers was the Iroquois' sophisticated use of oratory.
Their excellence with the spoken word, among other attributes, often caused Colden and others to compare the Iroquois to the Romans and Greeks.
An Annotated Bibliography , by Bruce E. Johansen Updated to November 12, reflecting the author's continued gathering of citations.
Since , I have kept a bibliography of commentary on assertions that the Haudenosaunee Iroquois and other Native American confederacies helped shape ideas of democracy in the early United States.
By , the bibliography had reached roughly items from more than books, as well as newspaper articles and book reviews numbering in the hundreds, academic journals, films, speeches, documentaries, and other sources.
The bibliography was assembled with the help of friends, as well as searches of libraries and book stores, and personal involvement in various skirmishes of the debate.
The number of references exploded during because I began to search several electronic databases. Before I explored these databases, I had been acquainted with the spread of the idea on a more personal level, especially through debates in academia that have been chronicled with Donald A.
Now, I was watching the idea take on an animus of its own, detached from its scholarly moorings. As the debate expanded in popular consciousness, a grand cacophony of diverse voices debated the type of history with which we will enter a new millennium on the Christian calendar.
Despite its caricature as a horror story of "political correctness" and the jarring nature of some of the debate over the issue, the idea that Native American confederacies are an important early form of democracy has become established in general discourse.
History is made in many ways, by many people; the spread of the idea that Native American confederacies especially the Haudenosaunee Confederacy helped shape the intellectual development of democracy m the United States and Europe is an example of how our notions of history have been changing with the infusion of multicultural voices.
It is fascinating to watch the change in all its forms -- and the debate over the issue in all its cacophonous variety. This bibliography comprises the "field notes" of my journey.
Immigrants from Europe often have borrowed from native peoples, embraced this knowledge as their own, and then forgotten its origins.
Meanwhile, the prevailing assumptions of the "winners'" histories condemn Native Americans as primitive and brutish.
The reconstruction of history in its true complexity takes some work, since it often runs counter to the heavy weight of well-established assumptions.
So it has been in the evolution of democracy, [Richard] Williams [executive director of the American Indian College Fund] believes: Bork's Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline from our Library's new-books shelf with a sense of impending ironic triumph.
Would I be able to add yet another sliming of my life's academic work by a neo-conservative household name who has never heard of me? After consulting Bork's index under "Iroquois Confederacy," on pages and , I hit pay dirt.
I ceased to be a mild-mannered middle-aged professor of principally Norwegian extraction who has spent 15 years at a Midwestern university teaching undergraduates how to write newspaper stories and essays on Black Elk.
Suddenly, I saw myself portrayed by Bork as a primary sloucher toward Gomorrah in his pantheon of politically motivated assassins of western civilization's most cherished canons, an advocate of the demon multiculturalism, and a bona fide barbarian at the Gate.
This is heady stuff for a professor from Nebraska. Oren Lyons at the UN: Opening Speech for "The Year of the Indigenous Peoples", This proclamation brings home inspiration and renewed dedication to our quest for self-determination, justice, freedom and peace in our Homelands and our Territories.
Indeed, the quest is a renewal of what we enjoyed before the coming of our White Brothers from across the sea. We were instructed to create societies based on the principles of Peace, Equity, Justice, and the Power of Good Minds.
Our societies are based upon great democratic principles of the authority of the people and equal responsibilities for the men and the women.
This was a great way of life across this Great Turtle Island and freedom with respect was everywhere. Our leaders were instructed to be men of vision and to make every decision on behalf of the seventh generation to come; to have compassion and love for those generations yet unborn.
We were instructed to give thanks for All That Sustains Us. Thus, we created great ceremonies of Thanksgiving for the life-giving forces of the Natural World, as long as we carried out our ceremonies, life would continue.
We were told that 'The Seed is the Law. It is The Law of Regeneration. Within the seed is the mysterious force of life and creation. Our mothers nurture and guard that seed and we respect and love them for that.
Just as we love I hi do' hah, our Mother Earth, for the same spiritual work and mystery. In our time, the academic landscape teems with Native people who have the requisite degrees, academic positions and publication records to write excellent encyclopedia entries.
In , treaty commissioners at Albany recall the words of Canassatego. Dating the Iroquois Confederacy , by Bruce E. The Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy, one of the world's oldest democracies, is at least three centuries older than most previous estimates, according to research by Barbara Mann and Jerry Fields of Toledo University, Ohio.
Using a combination of documentary sources, solar eclipse data, and Iroquois oral history, Mann and Fields assert that the Iroquois Confederacy's body of law was adopted by the Senecas the last of the five nations to ratify it August 31, The ratification council convened at a site that is now a football field in Victor, New York.
The site is called Gonandaga by the Seneca. I want to talk about our original treaties because we not only made treaties with the United States, but we also made treaties with other foreign countries, and perhaps the first one that we made was with the Dutch.
We used a wampum belt. That is, a two row wampum belt with two parallel lines on a field of white. We used wampum belts to help us commemorate our treaties.
Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.
The purpose of the belt, to use an anthropological term, is as a mnemonic device for remembering important ideas, so that when the reader of the belt holds it in his hands, the idea literally comes from the belt.
On the one hand, we are travelling in our canoe, down the river of life, and travelling in a parallel line in their boat are those Europeans or Euro-Americans who are here on our land, Turtle Island.
We are travelling along and we have an agreement with one another. I am not going to get out of my canoe and get into your boat and try to steer it, and I am going to ask you not to get out of your boat and get into my canoe and try to steer it.
We are going to allow one another to exist. We are going to accept the notion, that we are sovereign, that we have our own form of government and that you have yours.
We have our own way of life, and that you have yours, and that we are not trying to convince you to be us; we are trying to convince you that because of our long history here, we have a knowledge of this place where we live.
And so, we use this two row wampum belt even now, as the basis for all of the other treaties that we made after this time.
Over the past 18 months, the Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force has labored on a document which would begin the process of detailing the environmental impacts that the western society has had on our lands and territories.
The proposed Summit is a combination of several months of intense work, both by United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP and the task force established by the Confederacy to review the range of environmental hazards to which their communities have been exposed and to document as precisely as possible, the sources and nature of these hazards, as well as to design a plan of action for their remediation and the environmental restoration of the territories in question.
We, the Haudenosaunee, bring our case to the United Nations to draw international attention to the environmental issues affecting the indigenous communities in North America.
Having made a major contribution to the Rio Earth Summit in bringing about Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 , we maintain that our traditional strategy for sustainable development practices and coexistence is a model for the future survival of humanity on earth.
We are committed to continuing our sustainable economic practices. Principles for Environmental Restoration p. Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 formulated at the Rio Earth Summit recognizes the right of the indigenous communities and their representatives to undertake reviews as well as develop environmental strategies with regard to land and water based pollution.
The restoration must not be confined just to removing the wastes and pollution, but must also be extended to the social and cultural dimensions of the communities, the nations and the Confederacy.
As sovereign governments, the Haudenosaunee have complete jurisdiction over native territories. The Haudenosaunee jurisdiction should extend cooperatively to the surrounding areas that impact the ecosystem of the native territories.
Haudenosaunee should be assured adequate international legal resources that must ensure that the U. The hard work of the Haudenosaunee on behalf of the world's native populations have won for them many friends at the UN.
On July 18 the Confederacy had official representatives from all six nations. This document summarizes the current conditions on Iroquois lands and offers concrete solutions to return Mother Earth to her former state.
It proposes the creation of an indigenous environmental learning center to study problem areas and offer solutions. This center would also coordinate information, define economic development strategies and assist in the preservation of culture.
Among us, it is women who are responsible for fostering life. In our traditions, it is women who carry the seeds, both of our own future generations and of the plant life.
It is women who plant and tend the gardens, and women who bear and raise the children. It is my right and duty, as a woman and a mother and a grandmother, to speak to you about these things, to bring our minds together on them.
In making any law, our chiefs must always consider three things: We believe that all lawmakers should be required to think this way, that all constitutions should contain these rules.
We are the carriers of knowledge and ideas that the world needs today. We know how to live with this land: Our families are beyond the small, isolated nuclear families that are so convenient to big industry and big government and so damaging to communities.
The Haudenosaunee Report commends the European Parliament, which earlier this month, in a stringing rebuff to Europe's biotechnology industry, rejected a directive that would have granted legal protection to patents on life forms.
Many members of the European Parliament view all patenting of life forms as unethical and morally reprehensible.
We are instructed to carry a love for one another and to show a great respect for all the beings of this earth. We were shown that our life exists with the tree life, that our well-being depends on the well-being of the vegetable life, that we are close relations of the four-legged beings.
In our ways spiritual consciousness is the highest form of politics.